His father, Motilal Nehru —a wealthy barrister who belonged to the Kashmiri Pandit community,  served twice as President of the Indian National Congress during the Independence Struggle.
Ganges Plain[ edit ] After BCE, some Vedic tribes began migrating to the Ganges Plainpresent-day India, which was characterized by increasing settled agriculture, a hierarchy of four social classesand the emergence of monarchical, state-level polities. These several tribes and principalities fought against one another to such an extent that the Indus Valley no longer had one powerful Vedic tribal kingdom to defend against outsiders and to wield the warring tribes into one organized kingdom.
The area was wealthy and fertile, yet infighting led misery and despair. King Pushkarasakti of Gandhara was engaged in power struggles against his local rivals and as such the Khyber Pass remained poorly defended.
King Darius I of the Achaemenid Empire took advantage of the opportunity and planned for an invasion. The Indus Valley was fabled in Persia for its gold and fertile soil and conquering it had been a major objective of his predecessor Cyrus The Great.
However, he is known to have campaigned beyond Makran in the regions of KalatKhuzdar and Panjgur and lost most of his army in the Gedrosian Desert speculated today as the Kharan Desert.
Under Persian rule, a system of centralized administration, with a bureaucratic system, was introduced into the Indus Valley for the first time.
Provinces or "satrapy" were established with provincial capitals: Gandhara satrapy, established BC with its capital at Pushkalavati Charsadda.
Gandhara Satrapy was established in the general region of the old Gandhara grave culture, in what is today Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. During Achaemenid rule, the Kharosthi alphabet, derived from the one used for Aramaic the official language of Achaemenidsdeveloped here and remained the national script of Gandhara until AD.
Hindush satrapy, established in BC with its capital at Taxila. The satrapy was established in upper Punjab presumably in the Potohar plateau region. Arachosia satrapy, established in BC with its capital at Kandahar.
Arachosia was one of the larger provinces covering much of lower Punjab, southern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa of modern-day Pakistan and Helmand province of what is today Afghanistan. Sattagydia satrapy, established in BC in what is today Sindh. Sattagydia is mentioned for the first time in the Behistun inscription of Darius the Great as one of the provinces in revolt while the king was in Babylon.
The revolt was presumably suppressed in BC. The satrapy disappears from sources after BC, possibly being mentioned by another name or included with other regions.
It had been conquered much earlier by Cyrus The Great. What is known about the easternmost satraps and borderlands of the Achaemenid Empire is alluded to in the Darius inscriptions and from Greek sources such as the Histories of Herodotus and the later Alexander Chronicles Arrian, Strabo et al.
These sources list three Indus Valley tributaries or conquered territories that were subordinated to the Persian Empire and made to pay tributes to the Persian Kings: Gandhara, Sattagydia and Hindush. Ror Dynasty The Ror dynasty Sindhi: The remaining satraps lay in the Indus Valley, but Alexander ruled off invading the Indus until his forces were in complete control of the newly acquired satraps.
In BC, Alexander married Roxana a princess of the former Bactria satrapy to cement his relations with his new territories. Now firmly under Macedonian rule, Alexander was free to turn his attention to the Indus Valley. In the winter of BC, Alexander invited all the chieftains in the remaining five Achaemenid satraps to submit to his authority.
By spring of BC, Alexander began on his Indus expedition from Bactira, leaving behind horses and 10, soldiers. He divided his army into two groups. The larger force would enter the Indus Valley through the Khyber passjust as Darius had done years earlier, while a smaller force under the personal command of Alexander entered through a northern route, possibly through Broghol or Dorah Pass near Chitral.
Alexander was commanding a group of shield-bearing guards, foot-companions, archers, Agrianians, and horse-javelin-men and led them against the tribes of the former Gandhara satrapy.Essay topic toefl writing guidelines topics for the college essay writing essay on family law office management, essay about marriage and divorce psychology how to write poetry essay money british press essay library the college essay samples vassar.
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Essays; Jawaharlal Nehru; Jawaharlal Nehru. 12 December We will write a custom essay sample on. Jawaharlal Nehru. or any similar topic specifically for you differences from the time we became co-workers and yet I have said for some years and say so now that not Rajaji but Jawaharlal will be my successor.
“ Gandhi called on. India Independence Day.
India's Independence Day "At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom. A moment comes, which comes but rarely in history, when we step out from the old to the new India discovers herself again." - Jawaharlal Nehru After more than two hundred years of British rule, .
Jawaharlal Nehru (/ ˈ n eɪ r uː, ˈ n ɛ r uː /; Hindustani: [ˈdʒəʋaːɦərˈlaːl ˈneːɦru] (listen); 14 November – 27 May ) was the first Prime Minister of India and a central figure in Indian politics before and after independence.
He emerged as an eminent leader of the Indian independence movement under the tutelage of Mahatma Gandhi and served .