This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract This paper provides a review of the past, present, and future of public health surveillance—the ongoing systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of health data for the planning, implementation, and evaluation of public health action. Public health surveillance dates back to the first recorded epidemic in B. Current theories, principles, and practice of public health surveillance are summarized.
He won victories against the French to acquire Canada for England and helped make England the world's Bioterrorism with smallpox essay colonizer at the conclusion of the Seven Years War among the colonial powers Amherst College was later named after the town.
It is said the local inhabitants who formed the town preferred another name, Norwottuckafter the Indians whose land it had been; the colonial governor substituted his choice for theirs.
Amherst Historical Society, ], says that at the time of the naming, Amherst was "the most glamorous military hero in the New World.
Click on the pictures to see full-size images in new windows. The history of the naming of the town of Amherst, New Yorkshows a similar idolizing of the general: A Brief History of the Town of Amherst, Amherst MuseumSmallpox blankets Despite his fame, Jeffrey Amherst's name became tarnished by stories of smallpox-infected blankets used as germ warfare against American Indians.
Facts on File, ]. Waldman writes, in reference to a siege of Fort Pitt Pittsburgh by Chief Pontiac's forces during the summer of Captain Simeon Ecuyer had bought time by sending smallpox-infected blankets and handkerchiefs to the Indians surrounding the fort -- an early example of biological warfare -- which started an epidemic among them.
Amherst himself had encouraged this tactic in a letter to Ecuyer. Drawing by Terry R. Click on image to view full size in new window. Lord Jeff's letters during Pontiac's Rebellion The documents provided here are made available to set the record straight. These are images of microfilmed original letters written between General Amherst and his officers and others in his command during the summer ofwhen the British were fighting what became known as Pontiac's Rebellion.
Pontiac, an Ottawa chief who had sided with the French, led an uprising against the British after the French surrender in Canada. Indians were angered by Amherst's refusal to continue the French practice of providing supplies in exchange for Indian friendship and assistance, and by a generally imperious British attitude toward Indians and Indian land.
As Waldman puts it: Lord Jeffrey Amherst, the British commander-in-chief for America, believed The project was designed to preserve British historical documents from possible war damage. There are almost three hundred reels of microfilm on Amherst alone.
The microfilm is difficult to read, and paper copies even harder. Nonetheless, the images obtained by scanning the copies are sufficiently clear for online viewing. The images are of key excerpts from the letters.
An index is provided to show by microfilm document number the location of the imaged documents in the microfilm set. Text files of the excerpts are also provided. The documents These are the pivotal letters: Colonel Henry Bouquet to General Amherst, dated 13 July[k] suggests in a postscript the distribution of blankets to "inocculate the Indians"; Amherst to Bouquet, dated 16 July[k] approves this plan in a postscript and suggests as well as "to try Every other method that can serve to Extirpate this Execrable Race.
These letters also discuss the use of dogs to hunt the Indians, the so-called "Spaniard's Method," which Amherst approves in principle, but says he cannot implement because there are not enough dogs. In a letter dated 26 JulyBouquet acknowledges Amherst's approval [k] and writes, "all your Directions will be observed.
Little, Brown, ] refers to a postscript in an earlier letter from Amherst to Bouquet wondering whether smallpox could not be spread among the Indians: Could it not be contrived to send the Small Pox among those disaffected tribes of Indians?
We must on this occasion use every stratagem in our power to reduce them. This indicates at least that the writers knew the plan could be carried out. It is curious that the specific plans to spread smallpox were relegated to postscripts.
I leave it to the reader to ponder the significance of this. Several other letters from the summer of show the smallpox idea was not an anomaly. The letters are filled with comments that indicate a genocidal intent, with phrases such as: Amherst's correspondence during this time includes many letters on routine matters, such as officers who are sick or want to be relieved of duty; accounts of provisions on hand, costs for supplies, number of people garrisoned; negotiations with provincial governors the army is upset with the Pennsylvania assembly, for example, for refusing to draft men for service ; and so on.The Ebola virus (EBOV) - CME also is a minor pathway for EBOV.
18, 20 As GP is the only surface protein of it mediates the attachment and fussion of the viron to the host cell. Bioterrorism. Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir. Thanks to a successful worldwide vaccination effort in the 20 th century, smallpox has been wiped out.
No one has gotten smallpox naturally since However, it is possible that variola virus (the virus that causes smallpox) could be used in a biological attack (an intentional. the uncertain dynamics of global bioterrorism: smallpox as a hypothetical case for risks and responses o’sullivan, t.
create report under fema grant emwgr First, there is a critical need to reinforce basic public health systems, including primary health care facilities, laboratories, surveillance systems, and critical care facilities, among other.
The second agent that could possibly be used in bioterrorism is smallpox.
Smallpox is caused by the variola virus. Routine vaccines against smallpox were last administered in and the disease was completely wiped out by Essay on Bioterrorism with Smallpox - Bioterrorism: Smallpox Smallpox is a highly infectious and fatal disease caused by the Variola virus.
It causes extremely painful pustules to sprout across the entire body.